Interferometric synthetic aperture radar for deformation mapping: opportunities, challenges and the outlook
LI Zhenhong, ZHU Wu, YU Chen, ZHANG Qin, ZHNAG Chenglong, LIU Zhenjiang, ZHANG Xuesong, CHEN Bo, DU Jiantao, SONG Chuang, HAN Bingquan, ZHOU Jiawei
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With frequent launches of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, interferometric SAR (InSAR) technology has been presented with unprecedented opportunities along with many new challenges for deformation mapping. In this paper, we concisely demonstrate the current development of SAR satellites and the principle of the InSAR technique, and then systematically review the advantages and disadvantages of a set of advanced InSAR techniques including InSAR stacking, small baseline subset InSAR (SBAS-InSAR), persistent scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR),distributed scatterer InSAR (DS-InSAR) and split-bandwidth interferometry (SBI).On this basis, major challenges currently hampering InSAR applications (e.g., coherent loss, atmospheric distrubence, phase unwrapping errors, geometric distortions and multi-dimensional surface displacements) are investigated and their corresponding possible solutions are discussed. Then, we review the current status, particularly their limitations, of various typical InSAR applications under different scenarios such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, ground subsidence, glaciers, infrastructure displacement monitoring, and atmospheric water vapour mapping. Finally, we present the outlook of InSAR, suggesting that with the continuous development of higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and smaller SAR satellites, InSAR shall be applied to a number of new applications that cannot be achieved by traditional methods, bringing greater inspiration to the development of InSAR in China.